“Are any of you from Pennsylvania?”
My husband Jonathan and I visited London a few years ago. We spent our first full day at the Tower of London. Our ticket included a tour given by a Yeoman Warder, known colloquially as a Beefeater.
The Yeoman Warders – Beefeaters – are the ceremonial guardians of the Tower of London. In olden days, when food was scarce, they held a position of such high importance and honor that they were given beef to eat. Thus the name.
When Jonathan and I toured the Tower, the Beefeater assigned to our tour asked our group whether any of us were from Pennsylvania. The Beefeater identified himself as a member of the Coldstream Guards. Then he specifically mentioned the Pennsylvania grave of Major General Edward Braddock.
General Braddock commanded the British forces that attempted to seize Fort Duquesne – the future site of Point State Park in downtown Pittsburgh – from the French in 1755. You see, this is where the Allegheny River and the Monongahela River merge at “The Point” to form the Ohio River. Braddock’s expedition from Virginia and Maryland into present-day Pennsylvania occurred near the beginning of the French and Indian War. George Washington served as an aide de camp.
The French and their Native American allies defeated Braddock’s men in the Battle of Monongahela. Braddock died from his battle wounds during the retreat. Braddock’s men buried him in the middle of the road (in present day Fayette County) so that the opposing army would not locate and defile his grave. George Washington was there.
General Braddock belonged to the Coldstream Guards.
Generations later, road workers recovered Braddock’s body and reburied it a few feet away. You see, the road under which Braddock’s men buried him became the National Road in the 1800’s. We now call it US Route 40.
The Coldstream Guards erected a monument at Braddock’s grave in 1913.
After Jonathan and I returned from London, we visited and photographed the Coldstream Guard’s monument to Braddock’s grave. I posted at the top of this entry a close-up of the marker.
Now, the story of Braddock’s failed expedition to Pittsburgh in 1755 fascinated me when I was a kid. My dad told me stories about how Braddock’s army camped very close to what later became my great-grandparents’ and grandparents’ home in Westmoreland County.
Now, the lore also says that Braddock’s army carried gold intended for the soldiers’ payroll. The men weren’t paid until after the battle ended so that only the survivors received pay.
Anyway, per this myth, the British buried this gold the night before the battle. They supposedly hid it under a very specific tree on the banks of the Youghiogheny River. The French attacked. Perhaps everyone who buried the gold was captured or killed. In the confusion of the retreat, the gold remains in the Pennsylvania earth.
I find it curious that Pennsylvanians uncovered Braddock’s body about two centuries ago, yet there’s no sign of this gold.
Here are some more photos that I took the day that we visited Braddock’s grave along Route 40, near Fort Necessity, in Fayette County:
Here is a close-up of the Coldstream Guards’ regimental badge on the Braddock monument:
We actually visited London twice: in September 2008 and September 2009. In 2008, we toured the Tower of London. In 2009, I viewed the Changing of the Horse Guards and also the Changing of the Queen’s Guard. Here are some photos that I took of these events. I believe that Coldstream Guards possibly participated in these ceremonies. However, I am a clueless Yank. So, if I am incorrect about any of this, please enlighten me in the comments.
And finally, since at least one guard in the Tower of London speaks about General Braddock to American tourists, here are some photos from inside of the Tower. I watched a bride arrive for her wedding at the chapel inside the Tower where Anne Boleyn is buried. I took these the same day that we met the Beefeater who served in the Coldstream Guards, in September 2008: