“Are any of you from Pennsylvania?”
My husband Jonathan and I visited London a few years ago. We spent our first full day at the Tower of London. Our ticket included a tour given by a Yeoman Warder, known colloquially as a Beefeater.
The Yeoman Warders – Beefeaters – are the ceremonial guardians of the Tower of London. In olden days, when food was scarce, they held a position of such high importance and honor that they were given beef to eat. Thus the name.
When Jonathan and I toured the Tower, the Beefeater assigned to our tour asked our group whether any of us were from Pennsylvania. The Beefeater identified himself as a member of the Coldstream Guards. Then he specifically mentioned the Pennsylvania grave of Major General Edward Braddock.
General Braddock commanded the British forces that attempted to seize Fort Duquesne – the future site of Point State Park in downtown Pittsburgh – from the French in 1755. You see, this is where the Allegheny River and the Monongahela River merge at “The Point” to form the Ohio River. Braddock’s expedition from Virginia and Maryland into present-day Pennsylvania occurred near the beginning of the French and Indian War. George Washington served as an aide de camp.
The French and their Native American allies defeated Braddock’s men in the Battle of Monongahela. Braddock died from his battle wounds during the retreat. Braddock’s men buried him in the middle of the road (in present day Fayette County) so that the opposing army would not locate and defile his grave. George Washington was there.
General Braddock belonged to the Coldstream Guards.
Generations later, road workers recovered Braddock’s body and reburied it a few feet away. You see, the road under which Braddock’s men buried him became the National Road in the 1800’s. We now call it US Route 40.
The Coldstream Guards erected a monument at Braddock’s grave in 1913.
After Jonathan and I returned from London, we visited and photographed the Coldstream Guard’s monument to Braddock’s grave. I posted at the top of this entry a close-up of the marker.
Now, the story of Braddock’s failed expedition to Pittsburgh in 1755 fascinated me when I was a kid. My dad told me stories about how Braddock’s army camped very close to what later became my great-grandparents’ and grandparents’ home in Westmoreland County.
Now, the lore also says that Braddock’s army carried gold intended for the soldiers’ payroll. The men weren’t paid until after the battle ended so that only the survivors received pay.
Anyway, per this myth, the British buried this gold the night before the battle. They supposedly hid it under a very specific tree on the banks of the Youghiogheny River. The French attacked. Perhaps everyone who buried the gold was captured or killed. In the confusion of the retreat, the gold remains in the Pennsylvania earth.
I find it curious that Pennsylvanians uncovered Braddock’s body about two centuries ago, yet there’s no sign of this gold.
Here are some more photos that I took the day that we visited Braddock’s grave along Route 40, near Fort Necessity, in Fayette County:
Here is a close-up of the Coldstream Guards’ regimental badge on the Braddock monument:
We actually visited London twice: in September 2008 and September 2009. In 2008, we toured the Tower of London. In 2009, I viewed the Changing of the Horse Guards and also the Changing of the Queen’s Guard. Here are some photos that I took of these events. I believe that Coldstream Guards possibly participated in these ceremonies. However, I am a clueless Yank. So, if I am incorrect about any of this, please enlighten me in the comments.
And finally, since at least one guard in the Tower of London speaks about General Braddock to American tourists, here are some photos from inside of the Tower. I watched a bride arrive for her wedding at the chapel inside the Tower where Anne Boleyn is buried. I took these the same day that we met the Beefeater who served in the Coldstream Guards, in September 2008:
After the Johnstown Flood of May 31, 1889 killed at least 2,209 people, tourists took picnic lunches to Johnstown so that they could sight-see the damage.
People who lived along the Allegheny River (including the people of Parnassus) didn’t have to make this trip, though. The Johnstown Flood came to them.
You see, the South Fork dam upstream from Johnstown failed. The deluge wiped out several communities including downtown Johnstown and its surrounding neighborhoods. The debris washed downstream on the Conemaugh River.
Now, if you look at a map, you will see that we residents of Parnassus actually live downstream from Johnstown. Here’s why:
1.) The Little Conemaugh and Stoneycreek Rivers merge in downtown Johnstown (at Johnstown’s own “Point”) to form the Conemaugh River.
2.) The Conemaugh flows into the Kiski at Saltsburg.
3.) The Kiski flows into the Allegheny.
4.)About ten miles later the Allegheny flows past Parnassus (the city of New Kensington wasn’t founded until 1891), then past numerous other river towns such as Verona.
5.) Eventually the Allegheny meets the Monongahela at Pittsburgh to form the Ohio.
Here’s a passage from Chapter IX of Pulitzer Prize-winning (and Pittsburgh native) David McCullough’s “The Johnstown Flood,” about the aftermath of the flood:
The Allegheny River, with its endless freight of wreckage, also continued to be an immense fascination. Children were brought from miles away to watch the tawny water slip past the shores, so that one day they might be able to say they had seen something of the Johnstown Flood. The most disreputable-looking souvenirs, an old shoe, the side of a packing box with the lettering on it still visible, were fished out, dripping and slimy, to be carried proudly home.
There were accounts of the most unexpected finds, including live animals. But the best of them was the story of a blonde baby found at Verona, a tiny river town about ten miles up the Allegheny from Pittsburgh. According to the Pittsburgh Press, the baby was found floating along in its cradle, having traveled almost eighty miles from Johnstown without suffering even a bruise. Also, oddly enough, the baby was found by a John Fletcher who happened to own and operate a combination wax museum, candy stand, and gift shop at Verona.
Fletcher announced his amazing discovery and the fact that the baby had a small birthmark near its neck. Then he hired a pretty nineteen-year-old, dressed her in a gleaming white nurse’s uniform, and put her and the baby in the front window of his establishment. Within a few days several thousand people had trooped by to look at the Johnstown baby and, it is to be assumed, to make a few small purchases from the smiling Mr. Fletcher. Then, apparently, quite unexpectedly, the baby was no longer available for viewing. The mother, according to Fletcher, had lived through the flood and, having heard the story back in Johnstown, rushed to Verona, identified the birthmark, and went home with her baby.
So if this story is true, in the aftermath of the Johnstown Flood somebody fished a live baby out of the Allegheny River at Verona. (Verona is downstream from Parnassus and upstream from Pittsburgh.)
So, voyeurs may have stood on the ruins of Fort Crawford in Parnassus or on the adjoining grounds of the Presbyterian Church as the debris of demolished towns and demolished lives discharged past them. Perhaps a looky-loo climbed down the river bank here to fish a souvenir out of the Allegheny. Perhaps bodies washed ashore here.
I worked in downtown Johnstown for several years. Buildings there include plaques showing 1889’s high water mark and the downtown park features makers honoring the victims from Johnstown’s three deadliest floods (in 1889, 1936, and 1977). I often drove under the stone bridge that trapped many of the 1889 flood’s victims.
How sobering that the ruins of Johnstown coursed down the Allegheny, past all of these river towns on the way to Pittsburgh, in 1889.
I am Jennifer Gaffron Woytek. You can call me Jenny. This is my new home for my blog about places (especially Pennsylvania) and their people, history, and lore.
In Greek mythology, the muses of music and poetry lived on Mount Parnassus.
Today, I live in the Parnassus neighborhood of New Kensington, Pennsylvania.
I grew up in Perry and Somerset Counties. I graduated from Saint Vincent College in Latrobe. Then I moved to Johnstown for my first full-time job.
I visited New Kensington for the first time when I met my husband Jonathan in 2003. I found a job in downtown Pittsburgh. Then I moved to Parnassus to live in the 1890’s Victorian Queen Anne home that Jonathan and I are renovating.
Jonathan and I will continue to blog together on www.jennyandjonathangetmarried.com about our home projects and our family’s adventures.